Posts Tagged ‘electronics’

Embedded System Design

December 10, 2008

Book: Embedded System Design – A Unified Hardware / Software Introduction 

Authors: Frank Vahid, Tony Givargis

Publication: John Wiley and Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore, 2002

ISBN 9971-51-405-2

Pages: 324.

 

[Reviewed by Prachi  A. Deshmukh] 

 

Once, there was a conversation going on between three ladies. They were discussing on something very seriously. Each of them was telling her own experience and others were listening to the speaker very carefully. They were neither discussing about some TV serial, nor about the latest fashions. Their topic was regarding cooking. (But they were not discussing culinary recipes!). The three ladies were from three different generations – the first an 80 years old Granny, the second her 56 years old mother and the third the 28 years old daughter. They were discussing how the kitchen has been changed. Conclusion of their discussion was that, now cooking is a task of few minutes. Mixer, food processor, microwave oven, dishwasher etc. are there waiting for your orders!

 

Not only in kitchen, but everywhere one can see things are becoming easier and simpler. Those who are born after 1980s can experience the changes happening around themselves. Now there is no need to make your hands panic by washing the clothes. Washing machine will do it for you!

 

Do you want to listen to music of your choice? An MP3 player can store thousands of songs of your choice. If you want to convert your beautiful moments into sweet memories, then digital camera is there for your help.

 

Are you planning to go for shopping? No need to carry money with you. Credit card will maintain your account.

 

All these examples look unrelated to each others, but there is some relation in them. ATM, barcode scanner, cell-phone, digital camera, fax machine, home alarm system all are totally different from each others but they do have one thing common in them. All of them are embedded systems. Now the question arises ’What does an embedded system actually mean?’

 

In simple words, Embedded System is a computing system which does a specifically focused job. It’s nearly any computing system other than a desktop computer. We can not be unaware of it because embedded systems are part of our day to day life. We find them almost everywhere.

 

That’s why one must study about embedded systems, especially if you are aspiring to be an Electronics, Communications, Computer Engineer or IT Professional. For those who really want to know about embedded systems, a good book to start off with is ‘Embedded System Design- A Unified Hardware/ software Introduction ’ by Frank Vahid and Tony Givargis.

 

The book is actually an introductory book which makes us familiar with the basics of embedded systems, the hardware for them, the software, peripherals, memory and interfacing. This book is also helpful for those students who are going to take more specialized courses. To understand this book one needs the basic knowledge of electronics, flowcharts and algorithms.

 

The book shows its usefulness and applications starting from the cover itself. The picture on the cover shows all the applications in our day-to-day life which we find in home as well as outside our homes. A simple picture tells us how important to study the embedded systems.

 

The content in the book is divided into 11 Chapters. The first chapter introduces us with the basics of embedded systems. We become familiar with the Optimizing Design Metrics, processor technology, IC technology, design technology and trade offs.

 

In second chapter we learn about custom single purpose processors: Hardware. We learn about the combinational logic, sequential logic, custom single purpose processor design, RT level custom single purpose processor Design and the optimizing custom single purpose processors. If the reader knows about the transistors, logic gates and flowcharts then it will be easier to understand this chapter.

 

In third chapter the authors introduce us with the General Purpose Processors: Software. Here we learn the basic architecture of the general purpose processor, its operation, developing environment, ASIPs, General Purpose processor Design and about the selection of a processor.  

 

In fourth chapter we study the Peripherals of standard Single-Purpose Processors like Timer, Counters, Watchdog Timers, UART, PWM, LCD controllers, Keypad controllers, Stepper motor controllers, ADC and RTC.

 

There are different types of memory like ROM, PROM, OTOROM, EPROM, EEPROM, FRAM, RAM, SRAMDRAM, PSRAM NVRAM etc. We learn different types of memories as well as cache memory and MMU in the fifth chapter.

 

In sixth chapter we study the different types of interfacings to the processors as well as arbitration, multiple Bus architectures and advanced communication principles. Here we come to know about the different types of protocols.

 

Digital camera is an important and interesting example of embedded systems. In seventh chapter this example is explained very briefly. Here we learn about the requirements as well as the design of an embedded system very detail. Chapter no 8 and 9 are about the state machine and concurrent process models as well as the control systems.

 

Chapter 10 introduces us with the IC technology. Here we learn about the VLSI IC technology, ASIC IC technology and PLD IC technology. This chapter teaches about the IC technologies briefly.

 

In last chapter of the book, chapter 11 we learn about the techniques like Automation, Verification, Reuse, Design Process Models. At the end of this chapter we find the book summary. It gives us summary of the entire book in few words.

 

In appendix A the website is given which includes important information regarding the embedded systems. Also included are chapter wise lab resources. As embedded system is combination of both- hardware and software, it is very important to perform the practical experiments to understand the concepts.

 

This book is not just a simple basic book but is adequate for a complete course in embedded systems. The authors have maintained a smooth flow throughout the book. The language is easy to understand. One special feature of this edition of the book is that it has been designed specially for the students in developing countries.

An ideal textbook, this book may prove even more useful to understand the importance of embedded systems if some more applications of embedded systems were illustrated. Maybe further editions can be made more attractive by adding the photographs of the examples of embedded systems.

 

The summary at the end of every chapter give the important part of each chapter in brief. The review questions are helpful to prepare for the subject. The References and further reading are useful for those interested in a more detailed study of the subject.

 

We feel that this book may be extremely useful for students, engineers, technologists and professionals interested in the fascinating field of Embedded Systems. 

 

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NANO The Essentials

December 9, 2008

In his insightful memoirs, War As I Knew It, General George S. Patton, one of history’s most charismatic, famous and successful generals, gifted us an priceless gem of his human resource management wisdom: “Never tell people how to do things. Tell them what to do and they will surprise you with their ingenuity”.

 

Ever since I read this illuminating book more than thirty years ago, I have followed this adage with great success in my multifarious avatars as a Human Resource Manager, a Project Manager, a Design Engineer, a Teacher and a Mentor.

 

A few days ago, a young lady, Prachi A Deshmukh, a fresh engineering graduate, joined our department as a research fellow; and I gave her a book from my bookcase, told her to review it and email me her book review by the end of the day. [As per my style, I just curtly told her what to do, not how to do it].

 

When I opened my email early next morning, the book review was there, waiting for me, and yes, Prachi Deshmukh had indeed surprised me with her ingenuity. I am truly proud of my young colleague and mentee.

 

A delight to read, written in a refreshingly youthful vibrant style, breathtaking in its simplicity, I liked the book review so much that I am placing it below as it is, with minimal editing, for you to read. We look forward to your comments and feedback; do tell us if you enjoyed reading the review, and the book. 

                                                                             

Name of the book: Nano: The Essentials – Understanding Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Author:  T. Pradeep

Publication: Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008

ISBN-13: 978-0-07-061788-9

ISBN-10: 0-07-061788-0

 

[Reviewed by Prachi A. Deshmukh]

 

At the root of every invention, there is a seed of a thought which was unbelievable at that time. Yesterday’s dream is today’s truth; yesterday’s imagination is today’s reality. Let us take an example of ATM. Today we use ATM as if its ‘Any Time Money’ machine; but if we had told about this to somebody in the last century, he might had thought that we have gone mad! The same thing happened in December 1959, when Richard Feynman gave an after dinner speech at the annual meeting of the ‘American Physical Society’. He took the audience in the amazing world of his imagination. He was telling about the future where everything will be so small that there will be machines smaller than the tip of a needle. People were laughing, enjoying his ideas but no one knew the real meaning of his words-“There is plenty of room at the bottom.” Feynman is now credited for his great foresight which made him the first prophet of nanotechnology.

 

21st century is the era of great revolution in technology. Information Technology, Bio Technology and Nano Technology are some of the great windows which have tremendous capabilities to change the world around us. Especially Nanotechnology is a promising field in the near future which will provide us with many breakthroughs in a wide range of applications. It has been predicted that by the year 2015 the market share of nanotechnology and nanoscience will be worth 350 billion dollars. This calls for new investments in human resource development. These people must have strong foundation to build strong building. For those who are interested in this new technology, the book ‘Nano: The Essentials’ will prove to be a true guide.

 

The author of this book- Prof. T. Pradeep is with the IIT – Madras [Chennai]. Being a professor, he has structured this book so nicely that the reader gets his concepts clear right from the beginning. Starting from the preface we get more and more interest in this amazing world of nanotechnology and nanoscience.

 

The content of the book is well organized into five parts. In the first introductory part the author takes us in the world of nanotechnology with its relation with the nature. This part is enriched with the details of the technological inventions of 20th and 21st century.

 

In second part, we move towards the experimental methods. The author introduces us with the different types of microscopies . The neat diagrams, graphs and pictures in this part make it easier to understand the different experimental methods.

 

In the third part, we enter into the world of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, gas phase clusters, nanoshells etc. In this section also, author addresses us with his simple language. There are sufficient diagrams and graphs to understand the concept properly.

 

In fourth part we become familiar with nanobiology, nanosensors,  nanomedicines , nanotribiology and molecular nanomachines.

 

Whenever some new technology comes into picture it’s the duty of every conscientious technologist to study the societal implications of it. In the fifth part we go through the relationship between nanotechnology and the society.

 

The most appreciable thing in this book is I think the ‘History of nanoscience and nanotechnology’ which tells us about all the important events in the development of Nanotechnology. Hats off to the author for this effort. The glossary of nanoterms at the end of this book summarizes all the important terms used throughout the book.

 

The author has given the references and additional related reading books at the end of every chapter for the keen readers to know more about the things.

 

In simple words, the book ‘Nano: The Essentials’ is really essential for those who are keen to know about nanotechnology and nanoscience . With his simple language the author has maintained the flow throughout the book. There are plenty of diagrams, graphs, tables and pictures which make the study more meaningful. If you are really serious about nanotechnology, then I will insist you to have a copy of this book. It’s easier for understanding if you have enough base of science and technology. I recommend this book to students, engineers, teachers and technologists who are willing to enter in this amazing world of nanotechnology and nanoscience.